Akuntansi biaya IV (Job Costing )

Basic Costing Terminology…

  • Several key points from prior chapters:
  • Cost Objects – including responsibility centers, departments, customers, products, etc.
  • Direct Costs and Tracing – materials and labor
  • Indirect Costs and Allocation – overhead

…logically extended

  • Cost Pool – any logical grouping of related cost objects
  • Cost-allocation Base – a  cost driver is used as a basis upon which to build a systematic method of distributing indirect costs
  • For example, let’s say that direct labor hours cause indirect costs to change.  Accordingly, direct labor hours will be used to distribute or allocate costs among objects based on their usage of that cost driver

Costing Systems

  • Job-Costing: system accounting for distinct cost objects called Jobs.  Each job may be different from the next, and consumes different resources
  • Wedding announcements, aircraft, advertising
  • Process-Costing: system accounting for mass production of identical or similar products
  • Oil refining, orange juice, soda pop

Costing Approaches

  • Actual Costing – allocates:
  • Indirect costs based on the actual indirect-cost rates times the actual activity consumption
  • Normal Costing – allocates:
  • Indirect costs based on the budgeted indirect-cost rates times the actual activity consumption
  • Both methods allocate Direct costs to a cost object the same way: by using actual direct-cost rates times actual consumption

Seven-step Job Costing

  1. 1. Identify the Job to be costed
  2. 2. Identify the Direct Costs of the Job
  3. 3. Select the Cost-Allocation base(s) to use for allocating Indirect Costs to the Job
  4. 4. Match Indirect Costs to their respective Cost-Allocation base(s)
  5. 5. Calculate an Overhead Allocation Rate:
  • Actual OH Costs ÷ Actual OH Allocation Base
  1. 6. Allocate Overhead Costs to the Job:
  • OH Allocation Rate x Actual Base Activity For the Job
  1. 7. Compute Total Job Costs by adding all direct and indirect costs together

Job Costing Overview

Journal Entries

  • Journal entries are made at each step of the production process
  • The purpose is to have the accounting system closely reflect the actual state of the business, its inventories and its production processes
  • All Product Costs are accumulated in the Work-in-Process Control account
  • Direct Materials used
  • Direct Labor incurred
  • Factory Overhead allocated or applied
  • Actual Indirect Costs (overhead) are accumulated in the Manufacturing Overhead Control account

Published in: on Mei 18, 2010 at 8:17 am  Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar  

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