Akuntansi biaya II (An Introduction to Cost Terms and Purposes )

Basic Cost Terminology

Cost – sacrificed resource to achieve a specific objective

Actual Cost – a cost that has occurred

Budgeted Cost – a predicted cost

Cost Object – anything of interest for which a cost is desired

Cost Accumulation – a collection of cost data in an organized manner

Cost Assignment – a general term that includes gathering accumulated costs to a cost object.  This includes:

Tracing accumulated costs with a direct relationship to the cost object and

Allocating accumulated costs with an indirect relationship to a cost object

Direct and Indirect Costs

Direct Costs – can be conveniently and economically traced (tracked) to a cost object

Indirect Costs – cannot be conveniently or economically traced (tracked) to a cost object.  Instead of being traced, these costs are allocated to a cost object in a rational and systematic manner

Cost Examples

Direct Costs

Parts

Assembly line wages

Indirect Costs

Electricity

Rent

Property taxes

Factors Affecting Direct/Indirect Cost Classification

Cost Materiality

Availability of Information-gathering Technology

Operational Design

Cost Behavior

Variable Costs – changes in total in proportion to changes in the related level of activity or volume

Fixed Costs – remain unchanged in total regardless of changes in the related level of activity or volume

Costs are fixed or variable only with respect to a specific activity or a given time period

Variable costs – are constant on a per-unit basis.  If a product takes 5 pounds of materials each, it stays the same per unit regardless of whether one, ten, or a thousand units are produced

Fixed costs – change inversely with the level of production.  As more units are produced, the same fixed cost is spread over more and more units, reducing the cost per unit

Other Cost Concepts

Cost Driver – a variable that causally affects costs over a given time span

Relevant Range – the band of normal activity level (or volume) in which there is a specific relationship between the level of activity (or volume) and a given cost

For example, fixed costs are fixed only within the relevant range.

A Cost Caveat

Unit costs should be used cautiously.  Since unit costs change with a different level of output or volume, it may be more prudent to base decisions on a total dollar basis.

Different Types of Firms

Manufacturing-sector companies – create and sell their own products

Merchandising-sector companies – product resellers

Service-sector companies

Types of Inventories

Direct Materials – resources instock and available for use

Work-in-Process (or progress) – products started but not yet completed.  Often abbreviated as WIP

Finished Goods – products completed and ready for sale

Published in: on Mei 18, 2010 at 8:12 am  Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar  

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